Best Travel – Amazon 6 days

Best Travel – Amazon 6 days

Field Guide for amphibians in southeast Peru. The Manu Biosphere Reserve is regarded as the most biodiverse place in the world for amphibians; and so the team wanted to produce a free resource to share this diversity with both a local and an international audience. It contains over 110 species of amphibian found within the Manu Biosphere Reserve and is a tool to encourage students, tour guides and other visitors to get more excited

best travel amazon

about the incredible amphibians found in Manu. It is full of beautiful photographs and presented in such a way that anyone can pick up the guide and use it; not just a scientist!

TOUR ITINERARY

Best Travel – Amazon 6 days

 Manu Reserve 6days and 5nights

Best Travel  Manu Reserve 6 Dias

  • Length: 6 Days/5 Nights Amazon Peru Manu Reserve
  • Type of service: Private and Group in the Tour Amazon Peru Manu Reserve
  • Location: Southern Peru, Cusco Department, Madre de Dios Department, Manu National Park Biosphere ,Amazon Peru Manu Reserve , Manu Nature ,Manu Reserve Zone
  • Activities: Amazon Peru Manu Reserve, flora & fauna, Lake Otorongo and Salvador, parrot clay-lick, Amazon Peru,
  • Altitude: 600 – 4,000 m.a.s.l.
  • Best time to visit: May – December.
  • Departure:
  • Minimum of participants: 2
  • Maximum of participants: 10
  • Price per person: USD

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 Manu Reserve 6days and 5nights

Best Travel Day 1: Manu Reserve / Cloud Forest to Pilcopata Lodge

e leave Cusco early in the morning to start our adventurous trip! First, we are taken by private transport to the place called Ninamarca to observe pre-Incan “chullpas” (tombs) of the Lupaca’s culture. Then, we continue to Paucartambo, a colonial town with narrow streets and beautiful church, where people still keep their old customs. manu nature Then, we ascend to the viewpoint Tres Cruces (3,900 masl) to observe one of the best sunrises of the world! From there, we start descending to the Manu National Park, a place of presence of cock of the rock (a Peruvian national bird), hummingbirds, strikingly coloured quetzals, trogons, spotted flycatcher and woolly monkey. From flora, we can view a variety of orchids, mosses, ferns, etc. Finally, we get to Pilcopata (700 masl) where we overnight in the Tikari Lodge after enjoying dinner and shower.

Best Travel Day 2:  Manu Reserve / Atalaya Port to Boca Manu lodge .

After breakfast, we continue our journey in our private transportation (an hour and a half) to Port Atalaya (500 masl). There, we board the boat to continue the trip for half an hour sailing along the Alto manu nature Madre de Dios River. Along the river we will have a great opportunity to observe different species such as herons, vultures, Kingfishers, turtles, and some 13 species of monkeys that live in Manu! Then, after a brief stop in Manu Hot Springs, we will continue the trip and make a stop in the native community Diamante. In the afternoon we will arrive at our lodge. Showers and baths available. Optional activity: night walk in the forest

Best Travel Day 3: Manu Reserve to Casa Machiguenga Lodge

Today we will get up very early to go visit to the parrot clay lick and then we return to our lodge to have breakfast we will board a motorized boat to travel by trip through to the Madre de Dios River to change for a navigation on the Manu River offering us other incredible views of a great variety of species that live in and around it, such as groups of turtles, white alligators, capybaras, jaguars Panthera onca) resting on a trunk and observing its territory. Arriving in the afternoon to our Lodge Machiguenga . manu nature . Later our tour guide takes us to Otorongo Oxbow Lake where an observation tower is placed that allows us to see the giant otters that live there. During that time, the Guide teaches us functions and secrets of the jungle. After that, we return night Lodge Machiguenga . Showers and toilets available night walk in the Manu National Park

Optional: night walk in the forest

Best Travel Day 4:  Manu Reserve / Casa Machigenga Lodge / Cocha Salvador / Cocha Otorongo

Today we will visit the group visits Cocha Salvador today, which is 30 minutes from Cocha Otorongo. Today, they explore walking in the virgin primary forest. We visit the lake to paddle silently in a catamaran that gives us the possibility observe a family of playful giant river otters, These, the world’s largest freshwater carnivores, remain common only in Manu .Each animal consumes between 4 and 5 kilos of fish daily and often they can be seen eating large fish on logs at the lakeside. Observing as well as many rare bird species including a prehistoric bird called Shansho, Heron, Cormorants, Water Duck, Horned Screamer, Turtles, Taricaya, Black Alligators. The rest of the day will be spent walking the trails in the area in search of some of the 13 species of Monkey as Black Spider Mokey , Red Howler Monkey Night Monkey ,Dusky Titi Monkey ,Saddleback Tamarin ,Brown Capuchin Monkey and some mammals found here , Giant Anteater ,South American Coati ,Two Toed Sloth ,Deer a group of peccaries , found in the forest here our guide will explain some of the basics of rainforest ecosystems and point out some of the medicinal hight plants of the area used by local, indigenous groups. You can be sure that the animals here in the wild Manu Amazon have never suffered from hunting by people! In the afternoon, we return to our Lodge in Otorongo. . Showers and toilets available in Manu Nationa Reserve Center .

Optional activity: night walk in the forest

Best Travel Day 5: Manu Reserve / Casa Masiguenga to Boca Manu Lodge .

Today again call of the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) will wake us up. Unfortunately, we need to start our return on the Manu River, and one will be able to understand why Manu is so famous for its wildlife. At the edges of the river you will see groups of turtles, white alligators (Caiman cocodrylus), capybaras (Hydrochaeris) and perhaps a Jaguar (Panthera Onca) resting on a trunk and observing its territory . In the afternoon we will arrive at the lodge where we will settle in our respective rooms afterwards we will have a walk around our Lodge. after dinner, we will have a night activity Past the Nigth in Lodge with Showers and toilets available.

Optional activity: night walk .

Best Travel Day 6:  Manu Reserve Boca Manu Atalaya Port to Cuzco .

We woke up very early today After breakfast on the last day of the trip, then we will pack things to take the boat and start navigating through the Madre de Dios high river towards the Atalaya port. Where Our private vehicle awaits us back to the City of Cusco Approximately we will arrive to the city of Cusco from 7:00 pm to 8:00 pm. Important Amazon: You need to be vaccinated against Yellow Fever as well as to bring some anti-malaria tablets with you

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INCLUDED TOUR

Included in the Best Travel Manu Park 6 days

  • A professional naturalist Tour Guide;
  • Motorboat transportation;
  • Private vehicle land transportation – jungle trips;
  • Entrance to the Reserved Zone of the Manu National Park;
  • A professional Cook for jungle trips,
  • Meals: 5x Breakfast, 5x Lunch, 5x Dinner and drinking water (Please note: vegetarian option upon request for no extra cost!);
  • Accommodation: 5 nights in lodges;
  • First aid kit, including a poison extractor, mosquito bite treatment and an antidote for a snake bite;
  • Radio communications;
  • Rubber boots for jungle trips.

Not Included in the Best Travel  Manu park  6 days . 

  • Any flight nor airport departure taxes;
  • Travel insurance;
  • Vaccination;
  • Breakfast on the first day and dinner on the last day;
  • Drinks; Tips to local staff.

What to take  with you  in the Best Travel Manu Park 6 days .

  • Mosquito repellent (DEET 35 recommended as a MINIMUM),
  • Original passport,
  • Small backpack,
  • Long sleeved cotton shirts (preferably green colored),
  • Long cotton trousers,
  • Cotton long socks (to be put into your trousers),
  • Comfortable walking shoes,
  • Sandals or light shoes,
  • Rain gear (e.g. rain poncho),
  • Sweater (for the beginning of the tour in Andes and the cloud forest only),
  • Swimsuit;
  • Binoculars (we also rent it),
  • Camera and its charger,
  • Plastic bags to be used for clothes and a camera,
  • A hat as a protection against the Sun or rain,
  • Toiletries,
  • Small towel,
  • Toilet paper,
  • Sun cream,
  • Sunglasses,
  • Flashlight (with spare bulb and batteries),
  • A bottled water (1 litre as a minimum),
  • Pocket money (Soles) to buy some beverages and souvenirs as well as to tip.

 

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Best Travel – Amazon 6 days

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Study area
The surveys were conducted in an Amazonian Research  Program Station in Biodiversity in the Brazilian Parque  Estadual do Cristalino (henceforward PEC), with RAPELD  methodology (see Magnusson et al., 2005). The park is a large  protected area de  as «Priority for Conservation Site»  (Ministério do Meio Ambiente [MMA], 2001) that hosts an  area of 184,900 ha, situated in the middle of an area called
“Arc of Deforestation” (Fearnside, 2005), comprising the  Brazilian municipality of Alta Floresta and Novo Mundo,  state of Mato Grosso bordering on Pará state. The research  study was carried in a station installed in the north of the park  (9° 32’47 “S, 55° 47’38” W) (Fig 1) in the municipality of  Novo Mundo. The vegetation is characterized as transition  zones between ombrophilous and seasonal forest, seasonal
forest and savanna (Cerrado), and ombrophilous and savanna  (Cerrado) (Institituto Brasileiro de Geogra e Estatística
[IBGE], 2004).
Ant sampling The inventory of ants was conducted between  November 2012 (begining of the rainy season with sporadic  rains) and May 2013 (end of the rainy season with sporadic  rains) in 11 trails 250m long, with a distance between sites  of at least 1 km. In each trail, ants were collected every  25m, resulting in 20 samples per trail (10 samples of the  ground-dwelling ants and 10 samples of the arboreal ants)  and totaling 220 samples (110 samples of ground-dwelling  ants and 110 samples of arboreal ants). The collection of the  ground ant assemblages was made using a single pitfall trap
that remains installed for 48 hours in each sample point. For  sampling arboreal ants a beating-tray method was used in  vegetation of understory. In each of these points, we selected  the four treelets equidistant of about 2 m of the pitfall. Under  each treelet, a white canvas was installed to prevent some ants  from jumping and getting away from the sampling (Dáttilo et al., 2013), and about one meter from the ground to prevent
ants from walking on the ground and climbing on the canvas.  Then all vegetation in each treelet within 1m² with between  1-3 meters in height was steadily shaken and the ants that  fell on the canvas were properly collected. The sampling of  ground and arboreal ants was carried out concomitantly, so  the sampling of arboreal ants was performed between 9 am  and 3 pm on the same day that the pitfall was removed.
Ant identication Ants collected initially were identied using  dichotomous key for subfamilies and genera available in  Baccaro et al. (2015). So as to separate into morphospecies  and identify to a specic level we used several taxonomic keys  (Brandão, 1990; Fernández, 2003; Longino, 2003a; MacKay &  MacKay, 2010; Fernandes et al., 2014). Posteriorly we made  comparisons with specimens deposited at the Laboratório de  Ecologia de Comunidades from the Centro de Biodiversidade
da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT) and  the ant collection from the Laboratório de Sistemática,  Evolução e Biologia de Hymenoptera from the Museu de
Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP). We also  consulted specialists to conrm species identication (see  acknowledgments). Vouchers were deposited in the collections  mentioned above. After the identication and conrmation  by specialists we consulted the distribution of each species  using the AntMaps (Janicki et al., 2016), a new interactive  tool recently used by taxonomists and ecologists (Gérnard  & Economo, 2015; Vicente et al., 2015; Santos-Silva et al.,  2016; Wepfer et al., 2016). This tool comprises the geographic  distributions of more than 15,000 species/subspecies in over  1.7 million records of about 8,650 publications, museum
collections and specimen databases (Janicki et al., 2016).  Furthermore, we researched in bibliographic references related  to taxonomy of species or lists of ants from region.
Data analysis :We carried out a t-test to access the difference of  ant abundance and richness patterns between ground and  understory. Because ants are social insects, the sampled  abundance of workers in pitfalls may be strongly related to  the proximity to the nest (Gotelli et al., 2011) or workers’  number in a colony, which varies greatly between species  (Baccaro et al., 2015). To minimize this effect, we treated  the abundance as sample-based occurrences (Gotelli et al.,  2011) as is commonly done in studies with ants (Ryder- Wilkie et al., 2010; Dáttilo & Izzo, 2012; Baccaro et  al., 2013). To access the distribution patterns of the ant  assemblages we performed an ordenation with Principal  Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) technique based on a matrix  of Raup-Crick dissimilarity measures calculated in a binary  matrix with presence and absence date. Raup-Crick was used  because it is a robust index that calculates how different   pairwise samples are than expected by chance implementing  null models which consider the variation in the number of  local species and alpha diversity (Chase et al., 2011). This  index is frequently used to compare the dissimilarity of  invertebrate communities between different habitats (Ryder- Wilkie et al., 2010; Ribas et al., 2012; Reis et al., 2013). We  utilized the rst two PCoA axis (which represented 66.76  % of explication) in a Multivariate Analysis of Variance  (MANOVA) as dependent variables and vertical habitat  (ground and understory) as a factor. All analysis were  performed with R-software (R Core Team, 2015) using the  Vegan-package (Oksanen et al., 2015).
Results :We recorded 1,581 occurrences of ants in the 220  samples. The ants collected belong to 203 species, 45 genera  and eight subfamilies. Subfamilies with greater richness were  Myrmicinae with 23 genera and 113 species, Ponerinae with eight  genera and 23 species and Formicinae with ve genera and  27 species. The genus with greater richness was Pheidole (37  species), Camponotus (17), Neoponera and Crematogaster  (both 10 species).  Both abundance (p < 0.001) and richness (p < 0.001)  of ants were different between the vertical strata , being greater on the ground than on the understory.  We collected almost 63.4% of ant occurrences (total: 1,002,  mean: 89.1, SD: ±26.3 per sample) and 65% of ant species  (total: 143 species, mean: 47.91, SD: ±10.26) on the ground  stratum. The understory showed a total of 579 occurrences  (mean: 51±, SD: 15.1) and a total of 100 species (mean:  26.6, ±SD: 6.67). Of these 203 species, 164 species were  restricted to a vertical stratum with 104 species collected  only on the ground and 60 only on the understory, and just  39 species collected in both strata (Table 2). Although on  average 41.09 species by trail (±SD: 9.07) were exclusive to  the ground, there is a mean increase of 19.73 species by trail  (±SD: 5.85) by adding beating tray in the ant collection. Only  one subfamily (Amblyoponinae) was sampled exclusively  on the ground. Consequently, the species composition was  different between the habitats (MANOVA – Pillai-Trace:  0.852, F1,20: 54.873, p . Among the species  sampled, 34 were recorded for the rst time for Mato Grosso  State, Braziliscussion Of the inventories on ant assemblages conducted in the  Amazon, the major part of the studies focused just on ground- dwelling ants (Miranda et al., 2012; Souza et al., 2012, 2015;  Baccaro et al., 2013) and few comprised both terrestrial and  arboreal ant fauna detailing the strata in which each species was  collected (e.g.: Vasconcelos & Vilhena, 2006; Ryder-Wilkie  et al., 2010). These few studies carried out in the Amazon  embracing both soil and vegetation ants have demonstrated  extremely different ant assemblages between these habitats
(Vasconcelos & Vilhena, 2006; Ryder-Wilkie et al., 2010). The  methods employed here are very different. The both methods  capture active foraging ants, however the pitfall traps were  active during day and night whereas the beating tray method
was used only during the day. This can explain the small  number of species collected on vegetation, preventing strong  inferences towards the patterns of species richness. However  we observed a strong turnover on ant composition, since  only about 20% of all collected species were sampled both  on the ground and on vegetation. Hence, even missing several  nocturnal species on vegetation strata, the species collected just  on vegetation were certainly absent on ground strata. Therefore,  the vertical stratication in the ant fauna is a robust ecological  pattern found in both the Amazon forest and in other biomes  (Bruhl et al., 1998; Vasconcelos & Vilhena, 2006; Neves
et al., 2013; Camacho & Vasconcelos, 2015). Additionally  our results indicate that, using an additional simple method  focusing on vegetation foraging ants, as beating-tray, one can  increase the number of collected species. Therefore, besides  the vegetation foraging ant community can show different  ecological patterns they contribute to our understanding of the  real ant biodiversity in an area and, as well as the knowledge  of biogeographical patterns. The Amblyoponinae subfamily, considered as a basal  group in the evolution of ants (Saux et al., 2004), as well as  the 18 other genera were sampled exclusively on the ground.  Among these genera collected only in soil are the fungus- growing ants Atta, Mycetarotes, Mycocepurus, Myrmicocrypta  and Sericomyrmex. These ants nest directly on the ground or
in rotten wood in contact with the soil (Baccaro et al., 2015).  Except for the Atta species which climbs into vegetation to  cut fresh vegetable matter, the other abovementioned species  take advantage of organic matter found in litter such as fallen
leaves, fruits, owers, feces and corpses (Leal & Oliveira,  2000; Mayhé-Nunes & Brandão, 2006). Hylomyrma immanis,  Octostruma balzani, Rogeria scobinata and three unidentied Hypoponera species also were collected exclusively in the  soil. These genera have species with cryptic behavior .

he Naturalization of Nature: Discourses and Conservation Policies in the Manu National Park amazon travel

«The Manu shows in its landscapes an almost intact Amazon, an Amazon travel

The Manu National Park (PNM) was founded in 1973 and is currently one of the most emblematic protected areas in Peru. The exuberant figures regarding the biodiversity it houses have earned it an almost legendary status among scientists, tourists and producers of wildlife films (Shepard et al. 2010) travel amazon. It is common to see Manu thought and portrayed as a “living Eden” 2 – Amazon Travel, a remote paradise free of human interference. However, nothing is further from reality than to say that it has remained «intact» travel amazon. Historical and archaeological research shows a sustained human presence of at least three thousand years old (Huertas and García 2003) amazon travel; while at present a dynamic occupation is recognized by at least five language groups – amazon travel – Arawakak, Pano, Harakmbut, Tacana and Quechua-, reaching approximately 2,300 people (Master Plan 2010-2014) amazon who inhabit within the limits of the Park – travel amazon.

The human presence within this «Eden» was not an unknown data at the time the Amazon area was reserved as a National Park. However – travel amazon, it was established that the main objective of the PNM (travel amazon) was to conserve the ecological intangibility of this ecosystem and it seemed at the time that the presence of humans endangered its compliance – travel amazon. It was then decided to commission the resettlement of these populations outside the PNM area. This measure never came to fruition and, rather, as time went by, amazon travel.

1 Bachelor in Anthropology from the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru – travel amazon. He currently works as a research assistant in the Development Analysis Group, in the Natural Resources Area – amazon travel, Extractive Industries and Social Conflicts. They discovered new populations and settlements that have been increasing in number – Amazon.

Travel Amazon If these populations were not resettled, why did Manu continue imagining himself as the archetype of that paradise whose rhythm is dictated by an ideal of virgin, wild, harmonious nature Amazon Travel? It is this contradiction that drew my attention to this territory marked by the legend – amazon. A crucial observation is beginning to emerge: there is a gap between the way in which the conservation of Amazon Travel territories is thought on the one hand, and the social processes that take place within them on the other hand – Travel Amazon. It is within this panorama of problematic relationship between the establishment of this protected area and the indigenous populations that inhabit it that this research seeks to be framed – amazon travel. However, rather than focusing on the material dynamics of this conflictive relationship, this research seeks to focus on the link between conservation policies and environmentalist discourses, to see only from there how treatment of the human presence in the park. So,

Travel amazon in what way the conservation policies implemented in the Manu National Park reflect broader and more general ideas / images / representations of nature amazon travel? That is the question that guides this research. Why study the imaginary about nature – Amazon? The way in which nature is understood has a profound political significance, since it is this underlying representation that, after all, justifies control over travel amazon resources. The rules established by conservation policies are based on a particular imaginary about nature and not on the functioning of nature itself amazon. In this research, I seek to place emphasis on this social construction of environmental knowledge that is produced by the State and that shapes, in this case, the conservation of the Manu National Park, hoping to contribute to an unfinished and constant debate on the nature relationship. / indigenous populations within this territory.

 

3 The information that I present below is based on an ethnographic fieldwork carried out between August and November 2011 travel amazon, and a second shorter period in October 2012 amazon travel. While the subjects of the research were mainly officials and ex-officials of the PNM Headquarters travel amazon, The Naturalization of Nature travel amazon

El Manu – Amazon.

The project to create the Manu National Park was part of an initiative that sought to establish three “Great Travel Amazon National Parks” destined to conserve a sample from each of the natural regions (coast, mountains and Amazon Travel jungle) of Peru. The Manu basin was reserved in 1967 amazon as that great representative protection unit of the jungle, its definitive limits being declared as National Park in 1973 travel amazon, and becoming the fourth protected area to be created in the peru amazon country. The 1,716,295.22 hectares of the PNM territory are distributed between the eastern sector of the Andes Mountains, in Cusco, and the western edge of the Amazon basin, in Madre de Dios, where most of its territory is located. amazon travel.

As in any travel amazon protected area, the history of the Manu National Park has been linked to internal changes in the organization of the amazon travel State national conservation system, as well as closely linked to the history of both the populations that border the area like those that inhabit it- amazon travel. The management of this area has gone from being characterized by hostility, to a stage of crisis, to a current period of negotiation that is not free of contradictions – travel amazon.

In its beginnings it was understood that the conservation of the Manu passed in the first place by the relocation of the populations that inhabited it. led by the missionaries of the Summer Institute of Linguistics (ILV) – travel amazon and had had a series of fortuitous encounters with indigenous people in isolation amazon travel. Although the relocation never took place, it inspired a variant control policy – travel amazon: the expulsion of the missionaries from the Amazon SIL, a measure that had serious consequences for the Machiguenga population to whom the SIL provided education and health services around their missionary activity – travel amazon.

In the same way, the first surveillance actions were articulated around the Amazon travel populations. There were two very specific threats depending on who built the first Amazon Surveillance and Control Posts (PCV): the missionaries and the loggers – amazon travel. The first PCV was created in Tayakome travel amazon to control the entry of ILV missionaries – amazon. The second PCV was that of Pakitza, built on the boundary that separated the recently created PNM from the Manumazon National Forest – a logging concession – to control loggers’ access to PNM resources. The hostility that characterizes this initial period of management was further underlined by the militarized profile of the park rangers – travel amazon, immediate representatives of the state conservation institution – amazon travel.

Towards the mid-eighties a crisis stage occurred that represented the transition towards the fundamental turn in the management of the area – travel amazon. A series of epidemic outbreaks diminished it along with other actors linked to the management of the area (basically NGOs and tour operators – Amazon). My thanks to them for their time and interest in this research. yaminahua population – who lived between the Mishahua and Serjali rivers amazon travel on the northwestern boundary of the PNM – travel amazon – forcing survivors to cross the entire Manu and part of the Alto Madre de Dios downstream to reach the Dominican Mission of Shintuya, – amazon travel seeking support and medical treatment (Tello 2003) travel amazon. The frequency of these trips over a period of several years, and the problems they generated in their wake, forced the Headquarters to “open its doors” – amazon travel. The entry and exit of sick people was constant, making it impossible to close your eyes to the fact that the Manu was a corridor with intense social dynamics inside. To deal with the crisis, a doctor and an anthropologist were hired directly, being the only season in the history of the Park in which specialists of this type have been available – travel amazon.

At the beginning of the nineties, the Machiguenga populations that lived inside the Park – Amazon Travel, Tayakome and Yomibato, began to demand that the PNM Headquarters be allowed  This Local Committee manages towards the end of the nineties the Project for the Sustainable Use and Management of the Biosphere Reserve and Manu National Park – travel amazon (PRO-MANU, 1998-2003 – amazon). This project marks a milestone in the administration of PNM travel amazon. It not only meant the vast improvement of its infrastructure – travel amazon, but above all the consolidation of a management approach that recognizes the need to work the amazon «development» component with the communities inland and in the buffer zone. Thus, one of its five action strategies was aimed at «improving the quality of life of the population surrounding the PNM» – amazon travel.

Finally, I consider that in recent years we are witnessing a new period of crisis marked this time by the frequency of sightings of the Mashco Piro populations in isolation that have traditionally circulated within the Manu. At the end of 2011 travel amazon and early 2012 these meetings left a wounded park ranger and the death of a community member of the Diamante Native Community. The anthropological policy of the PNM is again in trouble as this crisis puts contradictions in the treatment of social problems in the eye of the storm – amazon travel. This new challenge should represent an opportunity for the reformulation of the management of this area – travel amazon.

To understand the twists and turns through which the orientation of the policies taken in the PNM – travel amazon has passed, it is necessary to inquire about the representations of nature that have sustained them – amazon travel. The way in which nature is understood has a profound political significance, as it is this that justifies a certain type of control over Amazon travel resources. This idea goes hand in hand with this understanding representing a particular imaginary about nature and not in the functioning of nature itself. In this section I will review the concepts and debates that have fueled this reflection on nature and conservation – travel amazon.

When did nature become something that deserved to be preserved? What processes and theoretical frameworks have fueled conservation action? Marone (1988) – amazon travel considers that the development of biological conservation – a term by which the scientific discipline is recognized – could only occur once the ecological-evolutionary theory provided it with the bases for its support. Ecological-evolutionary theory can be divided into two stages. A first stage of establishment during the 1950s; – travel amazon and a second stage towards the 70s of harsh criticism of the very pillars of his theory. Basically, the foundations of this theoretical body are laid on the theory of competition4, amazon travel that postulates that the main process of community organization is that under which the segregation of potentially competing species is promoted throughout an ecological niche – amazon.

This theory was closed by adding the concepts of balance – travel amazon and biological diversity – travel amazon: it is predicted that the communities in balance, through competition, reached their maximum diversity, and that the most diverse communities – travel amazon, being in balance, enjoyed greater stability. Biological communities are then understood as ordered, stable and self-sufficient arrangements, but, at the same time, dependent on that delicate ecological balance – travel amazon.

Thus began a stage of optimism among ecologists who believed they had found a general law on the organization of nature – amazon, a law that should serve as an effective tool to control human intervention in ecosystems – travel amazon: conserve nature not it could mean but preserve the biological balance, a condition for these laws to be 4 This theory is articulated based on three interrelated concepts: ecological niche – travel amazon, competitive exclusion and interspecific competition – amazon.

5 In order for competition theory to be effective, it is required that the supply of resources does not exceed their demand, that is, they must be in balance so that there is something to compete for. This notion is reinforced by the concept of trophic or food pyramid, which implies an interspecific vertical regulation- amazon travel.

6 It is understood that biological diversity is the result of the evolutionary segregation of ecological niches to avoid elimination by competition- travel amazon.

keep up. However, these principles – and the evidence used to support them – were heavily criticized in the mid-1970s (Wiens 1977, Haila 1982). The criticism focused, firstly – amazon, on the principle of balance in the communities – travel amazon. Contrary to what might be expected, it is shown that communities are rarely in balance – amazon. Secondly, the validity of the statement that nature in equilibrium achieves greater diversity is also broken – travel amazon. Some studies showed that there was no causal relationship between the two; Rather, diversity was not maintained «thanks to» the balance but «despite» – Amazon itself. It was suggested that the more complex systems – with more species and with greater interdependence between them – were dynamically more fragile – travel amazon, and it was also shown that the imbalance could lead to maximum levels of diversity – amazon.

In light of the revision of its own principles, the ecological theory of the 1980s evolved to the understanding of a chaotic and pluralistic nature that incorporated natural disturbances or changes as principles of organization of communities – travel amazon. However, conservationist practice, thought out from the principles of order, stability and balance, and the interdependence between these and diversity, did not advance in line with ecological theory and led to a disciplinary gap that revealed a resistance to imagine biological communities as the dynamic entities that are – travel amazon. Thus, the maintenance of the “ecological balance” became practically the main conservation dogma, despite the accumulation of evidence that questioned the relationship between the balance of an ecological system and the greater diversity of its elements – amazon.

Although ideas of biodiversity and balance continue to be powerful forces in conservation initiatives, in recent years more pragmatic concepts such as the concepts of functional diversity and ecosystem services (Martinéz- López et al. 2007 – amazon). These concepts work from the recognition that the mechanisms through which biodiversity – travel amazon can influence ecosystems have to do with the functional characteristics of some species rather than with the «specific wealth» in general – amazon travel. These concepts have also incorporated the economization of nature through the establishment of monetary values ​​of ecosystem services – travel amazon.

Naturally, the dominant currents of thought that feed ecological action have enriched and complicated the notion of nature – amazon travel as time has passed, however, they have not been able to break away from certain strong ideas such as balance, 7During decades the approach more common to the understanding of ecological processes was to relate the functioning of ecosystems with the richness of species – amazon; and this not for theoretical reasons, but because the biodiversity component was easier to measure: “many processes that regulate the functioning of ecosystems are difficult to assign to a particular species – travel amazon, and it is often not possible to determine the relative contribution from each species to a specific process ”(Martínez-López et al – amazon travel.

 

stability and diversity. If these are not properly covered by scientific ecology, what has come into play in the definition of nature – travel amazon?

What is proposed from the social sciences (Buscher & Wolmer 2007, Adams & Huton 2007, Brosius 2006, Descola & Pálsson 1996, Spence 1999, Wägenbauer 1992, Grgas and Larsen 1994) is that conservationist discourse is permeable to values ​​and representations that they transcend expert knowledge and involve, for example, moral and aesthetic issues – travel amazon. It is for this reason that in order to understand conservationist thought, it is necessary to anchor it in an ideological framework greater than the scientific discourse – amazon, and thus see what are the conditions of production both of nature and of conservation travel amazon.

Political ecology is the most recent discipline to assume a role in the discussion about nature (Leff 2003) travel amazon. From this, nature is understood as a social construct, produced through a double process (Castillo 2005) – amazon: on the one hand, nature is a physical reality built and mediated by historical social arrangements – amazon travel, embedded in relationships of power, which define what natural resources can be extracted, by which groups, how they will be used, and for whose benefit. On the other hand, nature is culturally constructed as a concept – amazon. Through certain representations, human groups classify, organize, understand and internalize this physical reality. Following Escobar (1999) – travel amazon ideas about nature, even those that result from scientific experimentation are formed, shared and explained in ways that are inherently political – travel amazon.

Along this same line, conservation is understood as a spatial practice that establishes certain arrangements for control over resources – amazon. The creation of protected areas (PAs) amazon travel – is the result of the establishment of rules by the State or other actors on who can use nature’s resources and where, how and when they can do it (Adams & Hutton 2007) – travel amazon. It is about the adaptation on the nature of a geographic project of the State that has an eminently political burden, while the fact that certain results on the control and management of resources are achieved is the product of certain arrangements in the existing power dynamics in a society – amazon travel. For the achievement of these results to be legitimate, the representation that nature draws up, as well as the position that society assumes vis-à-vis it – Amazon must be legitimate in the first instance. Hence, it is the imaginary and the representations that draw the attention of this particular investigation. It has been said (Spence 1999, Adams and Hutton 2007, travel amazon Descola and Palsson 2001) amazon that the nature / society division – amazon travel is the main epistemological support of this state project. Nature has been thought of as a biological body that can be understood, manipulated, controlled for the benefit of man through the development of expert knowledge – travel amazon. Society, on the other hand, thinks of a continuous process of differentiation outside of nature: the more it advanced in evolution, the more complex the relations between society and the environment became, and the more precarious the delicate balance between them (Eder 1998 ) – amazon. This in turn laid the foundations for the development of the idea of ​​a destructive humanity categorized as a threat, analytically external to the natural world, which came to complement the idea of ​​pristine and a-human nature naturaleza wilderness – amazon travel ’. This interpretation not only provides lenses for the state apparatus to look at nature, but also for the conceptual nature / society-amazon division to become physical in the landscape. The history of the areas protected is an example of this: before the ideal of pristine and wild nature can be protected, it had to be created – amazon travel. Thus, the creation of countless PAs worldwide occurred, which required, as an initial condition, the displacement of the populations that inhabited them-amazon. Protected areas, in this sense, crystallize a particular idea of ​​nature. A “typologically correct nature” (Albelda 1997) – travel amazon that deserves to be protected. Without falling into the vices of constructivism, this research seeks to understand the way in which the State imagines and reproduces nature in the specific case of the Manu Amazon National Park. In my opinion, to make evident the contingent and not definitive nature of these representations, thus How to establish the relationships between these and the sustainable development discourse, can contribute to the understanding of the problematic alliance between them – travel amazon.

Think the Manu Amazon.

Despite being portrayed as a remote paradise free of human interference, the history of occupation of the territory covered by the PNM dates back at least 3 millennia ago – amazon travel (Llosa and Nieto 2003) travel amazon. Going through pre-Columbian times, the first foray attempts by missionaries and expeditionaries in the 17th century, the arrival of the rubber fever between the years 1895 and 1917, Amazon and the logging that began in the middle of the last century, the Manu It has been a space of intense human displacement. In 1969 the expedition that was commissioned to continue with the reconnaissance work of what would be the Manu National Park made a tour of the Manu Chico and Sotileja – Amazon rivers. On the way, the expeditionaries met by chance with a group of yaminahua8. Not only was the existence of “uncontacted” populations known, such as this Yaminahua group, by then it was known of the existence of Tayakome, an Amazon travel machiguenga community that had been established from the action of the SIL in the area9 – travel amazon. However, as I said at the beginning of the text, to fulfill the objective of protecting the ecological intangibility of this protected area, the expulsion of this population was required. Article 2 of the Supreme Decree that establishes the creation of the Park states: “Take charge of the General Directorate 8 This meeting is documented in the first Master Plan carried out by the Park Headquarters in 1986 (Ríos et al) tyravel amazon.

9 SIL had arrived in the Amazon in the 1950s. He created a school and began a process of contacting the isolated Machiguenga populations that had withdrawn to the regions of the headwaters of the Manu amazon during the rubber boom (Shepard et al 2010) – travel amazon.

 

The Naturalization of Nature Sandra Rodríguez 8 of Agrarian Reform and Rural Settlement of the Ministry of Agriculture, the relocation of the occupants of lands of the National Park – travel amazon. ” Although this population was not expelled, the SIL did – amazon travel. The SIL had founded this village in the early 1960s. Although its main objective was religious, it had also built a school and a medical post to provide services – amazon. In addition, it introduced the use of weapons and ammunition. The Machiguenga provided the missionaries with animal skins as a financial aid to the ILV – travel amazon project. Partly for this reason, the park administration expelled them (Shepard et al 2010) – amazon. What was the objective? «Even their axes were taken from them,» says a tour operator when narrating this fact. It was sought that the populations in the interior stop having external influence on them and that they could somehow return to a kind of «natural state», a harmonious coexistence that would prevent them from exerting negative effects on nature, configuring themselves as a threat – travel amazon .

It was not possible, however, to restore that imagined harmony – amazon travel. In fact, the effects on the Machiguenga population were dramatic – travel amazon. Approximately half of the population left the Manu amazon and settled on the Camisea river, founding the community of Segakiato – amazon travel. Other families left the park for the communities of Palotoa, Shipetiari and Diamante – travel amazon, along the Alto Madre

God. On the other hand, due to the lack of missionary support, internal tensions and fear of attacks by the Yaminahuas, some families also withdrew from Tayakome – travel amazon to create new settlements in the upper part of Quebrada Fierro, which would later become in the native community of Yomibato – amazon (Tello 2003). After more than ten years of influence, the departure of the SIL left a serious political, economic, educational and medical vacuum – travel amazon. The crisis that followed had its most serious expression in the health of the Machiguengas – Amazon. There was a 50% decline in the population growth rate in the 1975-1984 decade; and between 1974 and 1980 the infant mortality rate was 60% (Shepard et al 2010). The PNM management was far from being able to fill this gap. On the contrary, the establishment of park rangers in the same community caused a series of conflicts that are bitterly remembered to this day: abuse of authority, alcoholism, a strong dependence in the community for food, and sexual relations with women. native (Shepard et al 2010) – travel amazon.

What did the departure of the SIL mean for the communities along with the arrival of the park rangers and the imposition of this sudden control over the use of their resources and ways of being – amazon? A story told by two park rangers from Machiguenga symbolically describes the effects of this meeting: “There was a civilian here (in Pakitza) amazon (…) The civilian has gotten sick so he already says that his back hurt and he has gone away and walked away. He has heard boom! A harpy has fallen. He has found him, and then he has slipped and from there he has returned and at night a fever has started. And they started to catch a fever the next day – travel amazon. Hence when amazon After that what was sick has gone, they have put masato on it and the tunche was eating that -says there were two, one has shot him and The Naturalization of Nature Sandra Rodríguez 9 one has made him run. One has gone to the mountain -.- travel amazon There they have shot him – amazon. In other words, the citizen has put masato in it. He has appeared, when he is eating, eating he has shot him. It says similar to people but it is iron – travel amazon. There was an Amazon park ranger here, the park ranger was here and has come to screw. There was always only a park ranger – travel amazon, so it appeared like this. It is not like right now, now we are already working without weapons, before she worked with weapons, they had her revolver, but then it has killed her and one has not killed her then she is gone – amazon travel. It has burned the other, the tunche. ”10 Rather than giving elaborate interpretations of this story, given that the Machiguenga worldview is not the focus of this investigation, it is evident that the establishment of the PNM involved breaking into not only the social order of the community- travel amazon (represented by the sick countryman) – amazon travel, but, more interesting still, about the natural order as it is thought from the machiguengas (the death of the tunche and the cruelty with his body) – amazon. Until the early 1990s, the Park was perceived as an oppressor, who without providing any assistance, imposed a series of restrictions and prohibitions that were read as arbitrary. The intention of the displacement of people as an initial policy by the PNM – amazon is not an isolated case, this measure is at the origin of many protected areas in the world – travel amazon. It responds to an ideal of pristine nature where man is thought of as a category external to him, as a threat to him – amazon travel. From this    Approach to the management of a protected area is basically to control threats, that is, to neutralize or regulate human activity on a state-owned territory, depending on the degree of ecological intangibility that is sought to be conserved – travel amazon. Nature cannot be thought of in itself, but always in the nature / society relationship. Thus, the process of building the natural world encloses the way in which man relates to it –amazon travel. In the case of the Manu amazon National Park, throughout its history the construction of the natural world has been marked by the figure of Eden – travel amazon. This figure is mainly supported by three basic characteristics: virginity, exuberance and wealth – travel amazon. The role of man within this figure has been ambiguously constructed from a basic division between the traditional and the modern. Chosen by Iam Grimwood as that representative sample of the jungle-amazon region, the Manu incarnates the Amazon as that “geography that belongs to the field of utopian imagery” (Pizarro 2009: 11) travel amazon. Although the policies in relation to the populations that inhabit it have changed over time, the Manu continues to feed the image of exuberant and virgin nature – Amazon travel. A tour operator working in the area comments – amazon:

«So you could say, in romantic terms, that the – Amazon from Adam and Eve has been like this, is the Garden of Eden – travel amazon. In other words, it has never been disturbed, except for the last stage of the incursion of the rubber tappers in the Peruvian Amazon basin. That great wave reached its end to barely touch the

10 Synthesized version based on the testimonies of Rafael Metaki and Domingo Chiririni – amazon travel.

10 Manu, but very briefly – amazon travel. Apart from that, the Manu has remained unscathed, pristine, untouched, until today (…). That made Manu a unique place, there is no other place like that. ”Accentuating the human presence within the PNM a little more – amazon, an official of the manu amazon .

 

 

 

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